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Sultan Abdülmecid I issued Samuel Morse his first official honor for the telegraph in 1847, and construction of the first telegraph line—between Istanbul and Edirne—finished in time to announce the end of the Crimean War in 1856. Istanbul has more than 93 colleges and universities, with 400,000 students enrolled in 2016. The city’s largest private universities include Sabancı University, with its main campus in Tuzla, Koç University in Sarıyer, Özyeğin Üniversitesi near Altunizade. Istanbul’s first private university, Koç University, was founded as late as 1992, because private universities were not allowed in Turkey before the 1982 amendment to the constitution.

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In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Finland is the highest ranked country in the World Economic Forum’s Network Readiness Index – an indicator for determining the development level of a country’s information and communication technologies. Finland ranked first overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from the year before. Finland had around 1.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1,000 inhabitants. All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone.

  • David Schultz, Encyclopedia of public administration and public policy p. 359.
  • “I was trying to do the best I could to save the hostages, save the prisoners, restore order, and preserve our system without undertaking actions which could set a precedent which would go across this country like wildfire,” Rockefeller later said.
  • In 1981, President Urho Kekkonen’s failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.

This survey looks at art from 1940 to the present as an accumulation of unique contributions by individual artists. These are examined in depth together with chapters which concern the broader context of the past six decades. Download or Read online Art Since 1940 full book in PDF, ePub and kindle by Jonathan David Fineberg and published by Unknown which was released on 03 August 1995 with total pages 496. Use it all the time for research and understanding of different periods in the art world. The definition used in this article, in terms of goals, actions, perception and environment, is due to Russell & Norvig (2021, p. 40). Other definitions also include knowledge, learning and autonomy as additional criteria.


This project had the participation of approximately 200 people in the first years, and had among its aims to provide affordable and relevant local learning opportunities and to build a network of local tutors. In Scotland, Freire’s ideas of popular education influenced activist movements not only in Edinburgh but also in Glasgow. A culture of silence can also cause the “dominated individuals lose the means by which to critically respond to the culture that is forced on them by a dominant culture.” The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in 1840 and the first post office, the Imperial Post Office, opened near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque. By 1876, the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the Ottoman Empire had been established.

Nelson’s biographer Joseph E. Persico wrote that as a child he “demonstrated a discipline that throughout life would serve him in lieu of brilliance.” Although Nelson wasn’t accepted into Princeton University, he got into Dartmouth College, arriving on campus in 1926. While in college, he met Mary Todhunter Clark at the summer home in Maine, and the two fell in love. Degree in economics from Dartmouth College, where he was a member of Casque and Gauntlet , Phi Beta Kappa, and Psi Upsilon. Rockefeller and Mary were married after he graduated, on June 23, 1930, at Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.

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Expectation-maximization, one of the most popular algorithms in machine learning, allows clustering in the presence of unknown latent variables. Alan Turing suggested in “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” that a “thinking machine” would need to be educated like a child. Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig characterize this definition as “thinking humanly” and reject it in favor of “acting rationally”.

While he was overseeing construction of the State University of New York system, Rockefeller built, in collaboration with his lifelong friend Roy Neuberger, the Philip Johnson-designed Neuberger Museum on the campus of the State University of New York at Purchase. Rockefeller served as Chairman of Rockefeller Center, Inc., (1945–53 and 1956–58) and began a program of physical expansion there. He and his four brothers established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, a philanthropy, in 1940; he served as a trustee from 1940–1975 and 1977–1979 and as president in 1956. He established the American International Association for Economic and Social Development in 1946.

The country is heavily active in recycling and anti-littering regulations and is one of the top recyclers in the world, with 66% to 96% of recyclable materials being recycled, depending on the area of the country. The 2014 Global Green Economy Index ranked Switzerland among the top 10 green economies in the world. On 27 November 2008, the interior and justice ministers of the European Union in Brussels announced Switzerland’s accession to the Schengen passport-free zone from 12 December 2008.

The Helsinki Airport-based Finnair, Blue1, and Nordic Regional Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Forests play a key role in the country’s economy, making it one of the world’s leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood processing industries. As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country’s forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.


As of 2019, an estimated 18,000 of the country’s 25,000 Christian Assyrians live in Istanbul. Istanbul has been a cosmopolitan city throughout much of its history, but it has become more homogenized since the end of the Ottoman era. The dominant ethnic group in the city is Turkish people, which also forms the majority group in Turkey.

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